Legal Protection of Muzakki in Zakat Crowdfunding: Analysis of Maqasid Asy-Syari'ah

Mohammad Farid Fad, Ali Imron

Abstract


Abstract: The concept of crowdfunding is rooted in the concept of crowdsourcing. It utilizes a "crowd" of people to provide feedback and solutions to develop a startup's activities. Along with its development, the crowdfunding model was adopted in the technique of collecting zakat funds to improve the management of more productive zakat assets. This study attempts to critically describe the practice of zakat crowdfunding from the perspective of maqasid asy-syari'ah, along with the concept of legal protection for muzakki (zakat payers). A qualitative method was used in this study. For analysis, the authors used a descriptive-analytical method and normative empirical approach to systematically describe and analyze the facts found factually and accurately. This study revealed the principles of hifz ad-din, hifz al-nafs, hifz al-‘aql, hifz al-mal, hifz al-nasl and hifz al-'ird are found in the application of muzakki legal protection in crowdfunding zakat, so from the viewpoint of fiqh, it is permissible. This implementation will reduce unemployment and economic disparities. Besides, it strengthens the country's economic infrastructure to achieve benefits, which become the goal of maqasid asy-syari'ah. Thus, preventive legal protection for the muzakki of crowdfunding zakat is very urgent to protect the worship interests of prospective muzakki.

Abstrak: Konsep crowdfunding berakar dari konsep crowdsourcing yang memanfaatkan "kerumunan" orang untuk memberikan umpan balik dan solusi untuk mengembangkan kegiatan suatu perusahaan rintisan. Seiring perkembangannya, model crowdfunding diadopsi dalam teknik pengumpulan dana zakat demi peningkatan pengelolaan harta zakat yang lebih produktif. Artikel ini berupaya mendeskripsikan secara kritis tentang praktek zakat crowdfunding dalam perspektif maqasid asy-syari’ah, beserta konsep perlindungan hukum bagi muzaki. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan metode analisis deskriptif serta pendekatan empiris normatif, guna menggambarkan serta menganalisis secara sistematis fakta-fakta yang ditemukan secara faktual dan cermat. Dari kajian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh temuan bahwa dalam zakat crowdfunding terdapat perlindungan hukum terhadap muzakki terutama dalam hal perlindungan agama (if ad-dīn), perlindungan jiwa (hifz al-nafs), perlindungan akal (hifz al-‘aql), perlindungan harta (hifz al-mal), perlindungan keturnan (hifz al-nasl) dan perlindungan terhadap kehormatan diri (hifz al-‘ird). Dengan demikian, praktik zakat crowdfunding secara fikih adalah diperbolehkan. Terwujudnya perlindungan hukum bagi muzaki dalam zakat crowdfunding telah berdampak positif terhadap berkurangnya angka pengangguran, kesenjangan ekonomi dan sekaligus memperkuat infrastruktur ekonomi negara hingga tercapai kemaslahatan yang menjadi tujuan maqasid asy-syari’ah. Dengan demikian, perlindungan hukum preventif bagi muzakki crowdfunding zakat sangat urgen demi melindungi kepentingan beribadah muzakki.


Keywords


zakat crowdfunding; legal protection; maqashid shari’ah

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14421/asy-syir'ah.2021.55.1.%25p

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